The British Museum’s Online research catalogue format offered a marvellous tool for this visual presentation, especially as it is linked to the collections database with its descriptions and bibliographies. Unlike a print catalogue it is continually updatable (and it needs to be: in May I am in Geneva to examine a new doctoral thesis by Pierre Meyrat on the previously untranslated magical texts in the library). Many of the fragments have not been fully published, some have never been published in photographs before, so this format will open up the library for study – as a whole and for the first time in its modern history.
From the CLASSICISTS mailing list.
BODIES OF EVIDENCE: RE-DEFINING APPROACHES TO THE ANATOMICAL VOTIVE
A conference to be held at the British School at Rome, 5th June 2012
Organised by: Dr Jane Draycott (BSR, University of Nottingham), Dr Emma-
Jayne Graham (University of Leicester)
From Pharaonic Egypt to Roman Italy and from Classical Greece to the
Byzantine world, anatomical votives have performed a continuous, if poorly
understood, role in ritual and votive practice. Modern scholarship has
categorised as ‘anatomical’ a range of ex-votos, made largely but not
exclusively from terracotta, which depict parts of the body. These arms,
legs, eyes, fingers, hands, feet, uteri, genitals, internal organs and
other recognisable parts of the internal and external body have attracted
much attention from scholars exploring both past religion and health
alike. Nevertheless, the category of ‘anatomical offering’ remains
noticeably ill-defined and remains to be integrated fully into the study
of ritual, artefacts and the body. This conference will ask how we should
define and interpret the ‘anatomical’ votive. Is a veiled portrait plaque
an anatomical votive? Is a foot or a hand a distinct anatomical votive if
it was constructed in such a way as to allow it to be connected to another
part of the body? Indeed, to what extent can we consider a model of the
whole body an anatomical votive if it was used to request general healing
of a non-specific illness? Whilst feet and ears appear to fall easily into
this class should we perhaps also consider other offerings, such as
statuettes of the entire body and swaddled babies from a similar
perspective? This workshop will bring together scholars working upon the
anatomical offering in its broadest sense from across prehistoric, ancient
and medieval contexts in order to explore and refine our understanding of
this phenomenon. What were anatomical votives for, what did they represent
to those who dedicated, encountered or made them, and what factors
influenced the selection of a particular item? In particular we will be
concerned with what these offerings reveal, not only about past religious
and medical contexts and practices, but also about identity, society,
politics and concepts or constructions of the human body.
We invite papers which address these issues from the standpoint of
archaeology, ancient history, classics and history of medicine, as well as
medieval history and welcome contributions focused upon Italic, Greek,
Near Eastern, Egyptian and other European or Mediterranean contexts.
Topics may include but are not limited to:
- What is an anatomical votive? Are whole bodies anatomical or only
fragments? Can they also be a work of art, an ornament, a keepsake or a
substitute for something else? How might the anatomical be conceived as an
item with multiple levels of meaning?
- The fragmentation, reconstitution or realignment of the body: the
anatomical offering as a proxy for the body or its constituent parts;
miniaturisation; the intact body as an anatomical votive; (re)creating a
body from individual pieces; the relationship between concepts of the body
as expressed by anatomical offerings and the treatment of the component
parts of the cult statue, other representations of the human or divine
form, or the living body.
- Standard forms and individuality: evidence for individualism or artistic
embellishment and its consequences; the process of commissioning an ex-
voto and the potential for customisation; the anatomical votive as a work
of art as well as a religious/medical object; the role of the manufacturer.
- Change through time and space: developing attitudes, practices and
medical concerns; can we treat objects recovered from diverse cultural and
historical contexts as a standard an expression of the same phenomenon?
- Medicine, pathology and retrospective diagnosis: distinguishing between
concerns for general health and specific complaints; when did scholars
begin to use these items to facilitate diagnosis and how has that
influenced academic discourse on the subject and the definition of this
category of object?
- The anatomical offering and the divine: connections with specific
deities; defining the sanctuary through its votives; when is a healing
sanctuary a healing sanctuary and not simply a shrine? How do more nuanced
interpretations of ‘anatomical’ affect these issues?
- The interpretation of discrete collections of material: deposits that
contain restricted forms of anatomical offering; the juxtaposition of
terracotta and metal ex-votos in discrete contexts.
- Reception of the anatomical votive: the impact of modern academic
discourse on their classification and interpretation; have scholars been
too focused on the detail of the traditional anatomical offering at the
expense of the broader picture? Links with the development of other areas
of study such as magic, gender, women, medicine; discovery, publication
Diverse methodologies are encouraged, although proposals should be written
to appeal to a wide range of disciplines.
Dr Ralph Jackson (British Museum)
Prof. Olivier de Cazanove (Université Paris 1 Panthéon-Sorbonne)
Dr. Jessica Hughes (Open University)
Papers should be of 20 minutes’ length, and should not have been
previously published or delivered at a major conference. Abstracts of
approximately 250 words should be submitted by Monday 13th February.
Successful contributions may be considered for publication in a peer-
reviewed conference volume.
Jane Draycott (firstname.lastname@example.org)
Emma-Jayne Graham (email@example.com)